Limerick City is nearly 1,100 years old, during these years it has been a Viking settlement, a walled medieval town, a Georgian city and now a modern, vibrant metropolitan area with a rich and historic hinterland. In 1413 King Henry V granted a charter which made Limerick an independent city-state. The city even had its own foreign policy. In 1524 Limerick and Galway actually went to war which appears to have ended as a draw and was concluded by a formal peace treaty. The nineteenth century was a period of great change. The fire service, gas supply, water supply, social housing, sewerage, public health and first public library were all introduced. Many fine churches and schools were built at this time, including Mary Immaculate College and Limerick School of Ornamental Art (LIT). Limerick’s most famous traditional industries were established including the four bacon factories; flour mills; dairy products ; lace manufacturers and clothing factories. County Limerick is a very historic and ancient place, with evidence of human settlement dating back 5,000 years. Lough Gur is one of the most important archaeological sites in Ireland, containing the country’s largest stone circle, a dolmen, and other prehistoric remains.